Our Earlier Work

This is an edited list of recent publications about overdiagnosis and overtreatment from our team. You can access a more complete list of each investigator’s publications by visiting the Chief Investigator or Associate Investigator pages.

Chief Investigators

1. Barratt, A (2015) Perspective: The risks of overdiagnosis, Nature, 527, S104 (19 November 2015) doi:10.1038/527S104a

2. Barratt A. Overdiagnosis in mammography screening – a 45 year journey from shadowy idea to acknowledged reality. Now it’s time to act. BMJ 2015;350:h867

3. Carter S, Rogers W, Heath I, Degeling C, Doust J, Barratt A. The Challenge of Overdiagnosis begins with its definition. BMJ 2015;350:h869

4. Hersch J, Barratt A, Jansen J, Irwig L, McGeechan K, Jacklyn G, Thornton H, Dhillon H, Houssami N, McCaffery K. Use of a decision aid including information on overdetection to support informed choice about breast cancer screening: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Apr 25; 385(9978): 1642-1652.

5. Morrell S, Barratt A, Irwig L, Howard K, Biesheuvel C, Armstrong B. Estimates of overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer associated with screening mammography. Cancer Causes and Control 2010;21:275–282. doi 10.1007/s10552-009-9459-z.

1. Buchbinder R, Richards B, Harris I. Knee osteoarthritis and role for surgical intervention: lessons learned from randomized clinical trials and population-based cohorts [Invited]. Curr Opinion Rheum 2014;26(20):138-44.

2. Buchbinder R, Harris I, Sprowson A. Practice Pointer: Management of degenerative meniscal tears and the role of surgery. [invited] BMJ 2015;350:h2212.

3. Slade SC, Kent P, Patel S, Bucknall T, Buchbinder R. Barriers to primary care clinician adherence to clinical guidelines for the management of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Clin J Pain 2015 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print]

4. Soon J, Buchbinder R, Close J, Hill C, Allan S. Identifying low value care – The Royal Australasian College of Physicians’s EVOLVE initiative. Med J Aust 2016;204(5):180-1.


1. Buchbinder R. Real or non-specific effects of meniscectomy? [Invited Editorial] New Engl J Med 2013; 368(18):1740-1.


1. 2015 Interview for ABC Four Corners program by Norman Swan, Joel Tozer on waste in the health system and overdiagnosis, filmed August 11, aired September 28, 2015

2.2016 Interview for podcast about EVOLVE and reducing inappropriate care http://www.racp.edu.au/pomegranate/View/episode-10-evolving-your-practice

1. Parker L, Carter SM. Ethical and societal considerations in breast cancer screening. In: Houssami N, Miglioretti DL, Editors. Breast Cancer Screening: The scientific evidence. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016 (in press, accepted 9/10/2015). ISBN 978-0-12-802209-2 http://store.elsevier.com/Breast-Cancer-Screening/Nehmat-Houssami/isbn-9780128022092/

2. Pickles K, Carter SM, Rychetnik L, McCaffery K, Entwistle VA (2016) General Practitioners’ Experiences of, and Responses to, Uncertainty in Prostate Cancer Screening: Insights from a Qualitative Study. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153299. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153299 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0153299

3. Degeling C, Rychetnik L, Pickles K, Thomas R, Doust J, Gardiner F, Glasziou P, Newson A, Carter SM. “What should happen before asymptomatic men decide whether or not to have a PSA test?” A report on three community juries. Medical Journal of Australia. 2015 Oct 19; 203(8):335. doi:10.5694/mja15.00164 https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2015/203/8/what-should-happen-asymptomatic-men-decide-whether-or-not-have-psa-test-report

4. Parker LM, Rychetnik L, Carter SM. Framing overdiagnosis in breast screening: an empirical study with Australian experts. BMC Cancer. 2015 Aug 28;15:606. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1603-4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/15/606

5. Carter SM, Rogers W, Heath I, Degeling C, Doust J, Barratt A. The challenge of overdiagnosis begins with its definition (invited). BMJ 2015;350:h869 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h869

6. Pickles K, Carter SM, Rychetnik L. Doctors’ approaches to PSA testing and overdiagnosis in primary healthcare: a qualitative study. BMJ Open 2015, Mar 17;5:e006367 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006367 http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/3/e006367.abstract

1. Moynihan R, Nickel B, Hersch J, Beller E, Doust J, Compton S, Barratt A, Bero L, McCaffery K. Public Opinions about Overdiagnosis: A National Community Survey. PLoS One. 2015 May 20;10(5):e0125165. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125165. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25992887; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4439083.

2. Carter SM, Rogers W, Heath I, Degeling C, Doust J, Barratt A. The challenge of overdiagnosis begins with its definition. BMJ. 2015 Mar 4;350:h869. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h869. PubMed PMID: 25740625.

3. Doust J. A is for aphorism. ‘A normal person is only someone who hasn’t been investigated enough yet’. Aust Fam Physician. 2014 Jan-Feb;43(1):73-4. PubMed PMID: 24563901.

4. Le Couteur DG, Doust J, Creasey H, Brayne C. Political drive to screen for pre-dementia: not evidence based and ignores the harms of diagnosis. BMJ. 2013 Sep 9;347:f5125. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f5125. PubMed PMID: 24018000.

5. Moynihan R, Glassock R, Doust J. Chronic kidney disease controversy: how expanding definitions are unnecessarily labelling many people as diseased. BMJ. 2013 Jul 29;347:f4298. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f4298. PubMed PMID: 23900313.

6. Doubt J. Overdiagnosis: the view from inside primary care, September 17 2012

Book Chapters/Sections

1. Morgan DJ, Brownlee S, Leppin A, Kressin N, Dhruva S, Levin L, Landon B, Zezza MA, Schmidt H, Saini V, Elshaug AG. Understanding Overdiagnosis, Overtreatment and Medical Overuse: A Consensus-derived Research Agenda. BMJ, 2015 Aug 25;351:h4534.

2. Paprica A, Culyer A, Elshaug AG, Peffer J, Sandoval GA. From Talk to Action – Working with Policy Stakeholders on Appropriateness and Selective Disinvestment. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 2015 Jan;31(4):236-40.

3. Elshaug AG, McWilliams JM, Landon BE. The value of low-value lists. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 2013; 309(8): 775-776.

4. Elshaug AG, Watt AM, Mundy T, Willis CD. Over 150 potentially low-value health care practices: an Australian study. Medical Journal of Australia, 2012; 197(10): 556-560.

5. Elshaug AG, Moss J, Littlejohns P, Karnon J, Merlin T, Hiller J. Identifying existing health care services that do not provide value for money. Medical Journal of Australia, 2009; 190(5): 269-273.


1. ABC 4 Corners 50 minute nationally televised special ‘Wasted’ on low-value health care in Australia. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2015/09/28/4318883.htm 28/9/2015.

2. ABC Radio National – Health Report (Norman Swan) 8-min interview ‘Choosing Wisely’ 2/3/15 http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/choosing-wisely/6273328

1. Bell KJ, Del Mar C, Wright G, Dickinson J, Glasziou P. Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer: A systematic review of autopsy studies. Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 1;137(7):1749-57.

2. Thomas R, Sanders S, Doust J, Beller E, Glasziou P. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):e994-1001.

3. Rychetnik L, Doust J, Thomas R, Gardiner R, Mackenzie G, Glasziou P. A Community Jury on PSA screening: what do well-informed men want the government to do about prostate cancer screening–a qualitative analysis. BMJ Open. 2014 Apr 30;4(4):e004682.

4. Glasziou P, Moynihan R, Richards T, Godlee F. Too much medicine; too little care. BMJ. 2013 Jul 2;347:f4247.

5. Moynihan RN, Cooke GP, Doust JA, Bero L, Hill S, Glasziou P. Expanding disease definitions in guidelines and expert panel ties to industry: a cross-sectional study of common conditions in the United States. PLoS Med. 2013 Aug;10(8):e1001500.

1. Salkeld G, Cunich M, Dowie J, Howard K, Patel MI, Mann G, Lipworth W. The Role of Personalized Choice in Decision Support: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Decision Aid for Prostate Cancer Screening. PLOS One (Accepted 24 March 2016)

2. Howard K, Salkeld GP, Patel MI, Mann GJ, Pignone MP. Men’s preferences and trade-offs for prostate cancer screening: a discrete choice experiment. Health Expect. 2014 Nov 10. doi: 10.1111/hex.12301. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25382490.

3. Howard K, Brenner AT, Lewis C, Sheridan S, Crutchfield T, Hawley S, Nielsen ME, Pignone MP. A comparison of US and Australian men’s values and preferences for PSA screening. BMC Health Services Research 2013, 13:388 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-388

4. Pignone MPP, Howard K, Brenner AT, Crutchfield TM, Hawley ST, Lewis CL, Sheridan SL. Comparing three techniques for eliciting patient values for decision making about prostate specific antigen screening: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(5):362-368. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.2651.

5. Pignone MP, Brenner AT, Hawley S, Sheridan SL, Lewis CL, Jonas DE, Howard K. Conjoint analysis versus rating and ranking for values elicitation and clarification in colorectal cancer screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2012; 27(1): 45-50. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-011-1837-z

1. Jenkins HJ, Hancock MJ, Maher CG, French SD, Magnussen JS. Understanding patient beliefs regarding the use of imaging in the management of low back pain. European Journal of Pain 2016 20: 573-580.

2. Traeger AC, Hubscher M, Henschke N, Williams CM, Maher CG, Moseley GL, Lee H, McAuley JH. Emotional distress drives health services overuse in patients with acute low back pain: a longitudinal observational study. European Spine Journal 2016 Mar 3 [Epub ahead of print]

3. Williams CM, Maher CG, Latimer J, McLachlan AJ, Hancock MJ, Day RO, Lin CW. Efficacy of paracetamol for acute low-back pain: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 384: 1586-1596.

4. Williams CM, Maher CG, Hancock MJ, McAuley JH, McLachlan AJ, Britt H, Fahridin S, Harrison C, Latimer J. Low back pain and best practice care. A survey of general practice physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010 170: 271-277.

5. Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, McLachlan AJ, Cooper CW, Day RO, Spindler MF and McAuley JH. Assessment of diclofenac or spinal manipulative therapy, or both, in addition to recommended first-line treatment for acute low back pain: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 370: 1638-1643.

1. Phillips K, Hersch J, Turner R, Jansen J, McCaffery K. The influence of the ‘cancer effect’ on young women’s responses to overdiagnosis in cervical screening. Patient Education and Counseling. 16 April 2016 [Epub ahead of print]. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2016.04.002

2. McCaffery K, Jansen J, Scherer L, Thornton H, Hersch J, Carter S, Barratt A, Sheridan S, Moynihan R, Waller J, Brodersen J, Pickles K, Edwards A. Walking the tightrope: communicating overdiagnosis. BMJ. 2015, 352:i348. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i348.

3. Jansen J, Naganathan V, Carter S, McLachlan AJ, Nickel B, Bonner C, Doust J, Irwig L, Colvin J, Heaney A, Turner R, McCaffery K. Too Much Medicine in older people? Deprescribing through shared decision making. BMJ. Accepted 1 Dec 2015.

4. McCaffery K, Nickel B, Moynihan R, Hersch J, Teixeira-Pinto A, Irwig L, Barratt A. How different terminology for ductal carcinoma in situ impacts women’s concern and treatment preferences: a randomised comparison within a national community survey. BMJ Open 2015. 2015;5:e008094. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008094 IF=2.013

5. Hersch J, Barratt A, Jansen J, Irwig L, McGeechan K, Jacklyn G, Thornton H, Dhillon H, Houssami N, McCaffery K. Use of a decision aid including information on overdetection to support informed choice about breast cancer screening: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Apr 25; 385(9978): 1642-1652.

1. Johansson M, Jørgensen K, Getz L, Moynihan, R. “Informed choice” in a time of too much medicine—no panacea for ethical difficulties. BMJ. 2016;353:i2230

2. Moynihan R, Nickel B, Hersch J, Doust J, Barratt A, Beller E, McCaffery K. What do you think overdiagnosis means?: a qualitative analysis of responses from a national community survey of Australians. BMJ Open. 2015;5: e007436

3. Moynihan R, Nickel B, Hersch J, Beller EM, Doust JA, Compton S, Barratt A, Bero L, McCaffery K. Public opinions about overdiagnosis: a national community survey. PLOS One 2015. 10(5):e0125165

4. Moynihan R, Cooke G, Doust J, et. al., Expanding Disease Definitions in Guidelines and Expert Panel Ties to Industry, PLOS Medicine. 2013;10(8):e1001500

5. Moynihan R, Doust J, Henry D, Preventing Overdiagnosis:how to stop harming the healthy, BMJ. 2012;344:e3502

6. Moynihan R, Heath I, Henry D. Selling sickness: the pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering BMJ. 2002;324:886


1. Moynihan R, Cassels A. Selling Sickness Nation, US, 2006

1. Semsarian C, Ingles J. Preventing sudden cardiac death in athletes. BMJ. 2016 Apr 20; 353: i1270.

2. Ingles J, Burns C, Barratt A, Semsarian C. Application of Genetic Testing in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy for Preclinical Disease Detection. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015 Dec; 8(6): 852-9.

3. Semsarian C, Sweeting J, Ackerman MJ. Sudden cardiac death in athletes. BMJ. 2015 Mar 18; 350: h1218

4. Sweeting J, Ingles J, Ball K, Semsarian C. Challenges of exercise recommendations and sports participation in genetic heart disease patients. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015 Feb; 8(1): 178-86.

5. Ingles J, Semsarian C. The value of cardiac genetic testing. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2014 Aug; 24(6): 217-24.

Associate Investigators

1. Prognosis of patients with benign thyroid nodules: a population-based study. Singh Ospina N, Maraka S, Espinosa de Ycaza AE, Brito JP, Castro MR, Morris JC, Montori VM. Endocrine. 2016 May 3. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27142412

2. Geographic Distribution and Evolution of Thyroid Cancer Epidemic in South Korea. Brito JP, Kim HJ, Han SJ, Lee YS, Ahn HS. Thyroid. 2016 Apr 1. PMID: 26934819

3. The Impact of Subclinical Disease and Mechanism of Detection on the Rise in Thyroid Cancer Incidence: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota During 1935 Through 2012. Brito JP, Al Nofal A, Montori VM, Hay ID, Morris JC. Thyroid. 2015 Sep;25(9):999-1007. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0594. Epub 2015 Jul 30. PMID: 26103159

4. Low risk papillary thyroid cancer. Brito JP, Hay ID, Morris JC. BMJ. 2014 Jun 16;348:g3045. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3045. Review. PMID: 24935445

5. Thyroid cancer: zealous imaging has increased detection and treatment of low risk tumours. Brito JP, Morris JC, Montori VM. BMJ. 2013 Aug 27;347:f4706. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f4706. No abstract available. PMID: 23982465

1. Johansson M., Hansson A., Brodersen J. Estimating overdiagnosis in Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: could a change in smoking habits and lowered aortic diameter tip the balance of AAA screening towards harm? BMJ. 350:h825, 2015.

2. Rasmussen J.F., Siersma V., Pedersen J.H., Brodersen J. Psychosocial consequences in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (DLCST). Lung Cancer 87 (1):65-72, 2015.

3. Brodersen J., Schwartz L.M., Woloshin S. Overdiagnosis: How cancer screening can turn indolent pathology into illness. APMIS. 122 (8):683-689, 2014.

4. Heleno B., Thomsen M.F., Rodrigues D.S., Jørgensen K.J., Brodersen J. How frequently are harms quantified in cancer screening trials? A literature review. British Medical Journal. 347:f5334, 2013.

5. Aggestrup L., Hestbech M.S., Siersma V., Petersen J.H., Brodersen J. Psychosocial Consequences of Allocation to Lung Cancer Screening – a Randomised Controlled Trial. BMJ Open. 2(2), 2012. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmjopen-2011-000663

6. Saghir Z. Dirksen A., Ashraf H., Bach K.S., Brodersen J., Clementsen P.F., Døssing M., Hansen H., Kofoed K.F., Larsen K.R., Mortensen J., Rasmussen J.F., Seersholm N., Guldhammer B.S., Thorsen H., Toennesen P, Pedersen J.H. CT screening for lung cancer brings forward early disease. The randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST): Status after five annual screening rounds with low-dose CT. Thorax. 67 (4):296-301, 2012.

1. Harris I Surgery, the ultimate placebo 2016, NewSouth Books, Sydney

2. Harris IA, Dao A. Trends of spinal fusion surgery in Australia: 1997 to 2006 Aust NZ J Surg, 2009;79(11):783-8

3. Ansari U, Adie S, Harris IA, Naylor JM Practice variation in common fracture presentations: a survey of orthopaedic surgeons Injury, 2011;42(4):403-7.

4. Buchbinder R, Harris IA. Arthroscopy to treat osteoarthritis of the knee? Med J Aust, 2012;197(7):364-5

5. Harris IA, Harris AM, Naylor JM, Adie S, Mittal R, Dao A Discordance between patient and surgeon satisfaction after total joint replacement. J Arthroplasty, 2013;28(5):722-7

6. Lim HC, Adie S, Naylor JM, Harris IA Randomised trial support for orthopaedic surgical procedures PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e96745

1. Houssami N. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: Data and implications for population screening. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2015; DOI:10.1586/17434440.2015.1028362.

2. Fancellu A, Turner RM, Dixon JM, Pinna A, Cottu P, Houssami N. Meta-analysis of the effect of preoperative breast MRI on the surgical management of ductal carcinoma in situ. British Journal of Surgery 2015. DOI: 10.1002/bjs.9797.

3. Houssami N, Turner R, Macaskill P, Turnbull LW, McCready DR, Tuttle TM, Vapiwala N, Solin LJ. An individual person data meta-analysis of preoperative MRI and breast cancer recurrence. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2014; 32: 392-401.

4. Houssami N, Ciatto S, Macaskill P, Lord SJ, Warren R, Dixon JM, Irwig L. Accuracy and surgical impact of MRI in breast cancer staging: Systematic review and meta-analysis in detection of multifocal and multicentric cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2008; 26: 3248-3258.

5. Houssami N, Hayes DF. Review of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer: Should MRI be performed on all women with newly diagnosed, early stage breast cancer? CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2009; 59(5):290-302.

1. Caleshu C, Kasparian N, Edwards K, Yeates L, Semsarian C, Perez M, Ashley E, Turner C, Knowles J, Ingles J. Interdisciplinary psychosocial care for families with inherited cardiovascular diseases. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2016. Accepted April 22.

2. Bagnall RD, Weintraub RG, Ingles J, Duflou J, Yeates Y, Lam L, Davis A, Thompson T, Connell V, Wallace J, Naylor C, Crawford J, Love DR Hallam L, White J, Lawrence C, Lynch M, Morgan N, James P, du Sart D, Puranik R, Langlois N, Vohra J, Winship I, Atherton J, McGaughran J, Skinner JR, Semsarian C. A Prospective, Population-Based Study of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young. New England Journal of Medicine 2016. Accepted 25 Feb.

3. Semsarian C, Ingles J. Preventing sudden cardiac death in athletes. British Medical Journal. 2016. Epub April 20.

4. Ingles J, Spinks C, Yeates L, Kasparian N, Semsarian C. Posttraumatic stress and prolonged grief after sudden cardiac death in the young. 2015. JAMA Internal Medicine. Accepted 28 Nov.

5. Ingles J, Burns C, Barratt A, Semsarian C. Application of genetic testing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for preclinical disease detection. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 2015. Accepted Nov 5.

1. Hersch J, Barratt A, Jansen J, Irwig L, McGeechan K, Jacklyn G, Thornton H, Dhillon H, Houssami N, McCaffery K. Use of a decision aid including information on overdetection to support informed choice about breast cancer screening: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Apr 25; 385(9978): 1642-1652.

2. Morrell S, Barratt A, Irwig L, Howard K, Biesheuvel C, Armstrong B. Estimates of overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer associated with screening mammography. Cancer Causes Control [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Feb];21(2):275-82. In: Ovid MEDLINE(R) [Internet]. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=med5&NEWS=N&AN=19894130

3. Turner MJ, van Schalkwyk JM, Irwig L. Lax sphygmomanometer standard causes overdetection and underdetection of hypertension: a computer simulation study. Blood Press Monit [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2008 Apr];13(2):91-9. In: Ovid MEDLINE(R) [Internet]. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=med5&NEWS=N&AN=18347443

4. Biesheuvel C, Barratt A, Howard K, Houssami N, Irwig L. Effects of study methods and biases on estimates of invasive breast cancer overdetection with mammography screening: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2007 Dec];8(12):1129-38. In: Ovid MEDLINE(R) [Internet]. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=med5&NEWS=N&AN=18054882

5. Turner MJ, Irwig L, Bune AJ, Kam PC, Baker AB. Lack of sphygmomanometer calibration causes over- and under-detection of hypertension: a computer simulation study. J Hypertens [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2006 Oct];24(10):1931-8. In: Ovid MEDLINE(R) [Internet]. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=med5&NEWS=N&AN=16957551

1. Machado GC, Maher CG, Ferreira PH, Pinheiro MB, Lin CW, Day RO, McLachlan AJ, Ferreira ML. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials. BMJ. 2015 Mar 31;350:h1225 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828856

2. Williams CM, Maher CG, Latimer J, McLachlan AJ, Hancock MJ, Day RO, Lin CW. Efficacy of paracetamol for acute low-back pain: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014; 384 (9954): 1586-96 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25064594

3. Le Couteur DG, Banks E, Gnjidic D, McLachlan AJ. Deprescribing. Australian Prescriber 2011;34:182–185. http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/34/6/182/5

4. Best O, Gnjidic D, Hilmer SN, Naganathan V, McLachlan AJ. Investigating polypharmacy and drug burden index in hospitalised older people. Intern Med J 2013; 43(8):912-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23734965

5. Gnjidic D, Hilmer SN, Blyth FM, Naganathan V, Waite L, Seibel MJ, McLachlan AJ, Cumming RG, Handelsman DJ, Le Couteur DG. Polypharmacy and adverse outcomes: determining the best cut-off for polypharmacy associated with geriatric syndromes, functional outcomes and mortality in older adults. J Clin Epidemiol 2012; 65(9):989-95 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742913

1. Tzortziou Brown V, Underwood M, Mohamed N, Westwood O, Morrissey D. Professional interventions for general practitioners on the management of musculoskeletal conditions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 6;5:CD007495. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 27150167

2. Lamb SE, Williamson EM, Heine PJ, Adams J, Dosanjh S, Dritsaki M, Glover MJ, Lord J, McConkey C, Nichols V, Rahman A, Underwood M, Williams MA; on behalf of the Strengthening and Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand Trial (SARAH) Trial Team Exercises to improve function of the rheumatoid hand (SARAH): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Oct 9. pii: S0140-6736(14)60998-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60998-3. [Epub ahead of print]

3. Underwood M, Atherton N, Bremner S, Devine A, Diaz-Ordaz K, Eldridge S, Ellard D, Lamb SE, Potter R, Sheehan B, Slowther A, Spanjers K, Spencer A, Taylor S, Thorogood M. Exercise for depression in care home residents. A randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis (OPERA) ISRCTN43769277. HTA monograph 01/05/2013 [5.010]. PMID: 23632142

4. Lamb SE, Gates S, Williams MA, Williamson EM, Mt-Isa S, Withers EJ, Castelnuovo E, Smith J, Ashby D, Cooke MW, Petrou S, Underwood M, on behalf of the MINT Study Team. Emergency department treatments and physiotherapy for acute whiplash : a pragmatic, two-step, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2013 Feb 16;381(9866):546-56. [39.060]. PMID: 23260167

5. Carville S, Padhi S, Reason T, Underwood M; on behalf of the Guideline Development Group. Diagnosis and management of headaches in young people and adults: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2012 Sep 19;345:e5765. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5765